|During the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901), British people traveled around the whole world.
|They charted the seas, mapped out distant countries and studied plants, animals and people.
|They also claimed many lands for England.
|This kind of international travel was made easier by improved transportation and communication.
|New inventions such as steamships, trains,
|telegraphs and telephones made long distances seem smaller.
|Of course, people had different reasons for going to distant lands.
|Some were businessmen who saw economic opportunities overseas.
|Soldiers wanted fame and a chance to enlarge the British Empire.
|Big-game hunters wanted to be the first to shoot strange animals and bring back trophies to England.
|Scientists intended to study unknown animals and plants.
|Missionaries planned to be the first to introduce Christianity to faraway people.
|In 1836 a young Scotsman called David Livingstone began to study medicine in Glasgow.
|Livingstone intended to become a medical missionary.
|This means that he would be a doctor, as well as a preacher and teacher.
|Livingstone (1813-1873) came from a poor family.
|From an early age, he had worked 14 hours a day in a clothing factory for very little pay.
|But he was determined to learn.
|He took his books with him to the factory and read as he worked.
|Then, after work, he would go to his teacher to learn more.
|Livingstone’s goal was to teach faraway people about Jesus.
|However, unlike some missionaries, he was also interested in science, geography and exploring.
|He had planned to go to China in 1839,
|but because of the Opium Wars no missionaries were being sent there.
|Instead, he asked to go to South Africa.
|Europeans had traveled around the coasts of Africa for hundreds of years.
|But very few white people had traveled inland.
|A missionary named Robert Moffatt who had begun a mission at Kuruman in the interior inspired Livingstone.
|Livingstone arrived in Kuruman in 1841.
|This was the farthest outpost of white settlement, and no one seemed to want to go further inland.
|Livingstone felt that the missionaries should go to the Africans,
|rather than waiting for the Africans to come to them.
|With a fellow missionary he set out.
|When they came to an African tribe, they would talk to the chief and ask permission to preach to his people.
|Livingstone would also set up a tent and treat the people who had diseases.
|After a while, he would move on to the next tribe.
|Once Livingstone learned the Bantu language he would talk to many Africans.
|But sometimes he needed interpreters.
|There were many diseases, including malaria and sleeping sickness.
|Livingstone suffered much of his life from river fever.
|He was also so weak that he rode on the back of an ox.
|Livingstone wanted to stop the slave trade.
|At this time, the slave trade was the most profitable business in Africa.
|Livingstone hoped that if other kinds of trade were developed,
|then slavery could be abolished.
|In order to open up trade, he wanted to find an easy route into the center of Africa.
|Livingstone kept going further into the interior.
|He was probably the first European to cross the Kalahari Desert before reaching Lake Ngami in present-day Botswana.
|Not long after, he traveled further inland.
|He explored the sources of the Zambezi
|and Kasai rivers and eventually reached the west coast of Africa at Luanda, Angola.
|Livingstone was being criticized for neglecting missionary work in order to explore.
|Livingstone replied that he was opening up the continent for missionaries.
|Meanwhile, he was becoming famous as a great explorer.
|The British government commissioned him to explore the Zambezi River.
|They hoped that ships could sail up the river into the interior.
|Unfortunately, the Zambezi had too many rapids.
|However, Livingstone did find a route up the Shire River to Lake Nyassa.
|He continued to struggle against the slave trade, which was now being taken over by Arabs.
|Livingstone died in Africa in 1873.
|He was the first white man to explore Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi and surrounding areas.
|He was not only a great explorer, but also a fine doctor and a good missionary.
|Nowadays, the countries that Livingstone visited are nearly all Christian, just as he had hoped they would be.